Zdetl (language)

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Zdetl (language) is the language that is primarily used by the Zhodani race throughout the Zhodani Consulate polity.

  • It is a supercentral language.

Description (Specifications)[edit]

Zdetl (noun)

  1. Name given by the Zhodani for their language. Adopted as their official language in the 300th olympiad, around -6055.
  2. Translation of Rising Man

Structure[edit]

Sentences are of the form Object – Verb – Subject – Indirect Object(s).

Morphology[edit]

Morphology is the study of the internal structure of words.

  • morpheme, inflection, paradigm, declension, derivation, compound, etc.


Verbs are conjugated for person and mood.

Phonology[edit]

Phonology, the study of the sound systems of a language.

  • phoneme, allophone, segment, mora, syllable, foot, stress, tone, etc.

Grammar[edit]

Grammar is the structure of a language.

  • tense, aspect, mood and modality, grammatical number, grammatical gender, case, etc.

Aspect and tense are carried on adverbs following the verb.

Syntax[edit]

Syntax is the study of how words combine to form grammatical sentences.

  • phrase, clause, grammatical function, grammatical voice, etc.

Sentences are of the form Object – Verb – Subject – Indirect Object(s).

Meaning[edit]

No information yet available.

Lexicology[edit]

See Lexicon

A lexicon is the word supply of a language.

  • word, lexeme, lemma, lexicon, vocabulary, terminology, etc.

Semantics[edit]

Semantics is the study of the meaning of words (lexical semantics), and how these combine to form the meanings of sentences.

  • meaning, sense, entailment, truth condition, compositionality, etc.

Pragmatics[edit]

Pragmatics is the study of how language is used by its speakers.

  • presupposition, implicature, deixis

Nouns[edit]

Nouns modify nouns in the same order as in English: the modifying noun is first, then the main noun last. In Zhodani these forms are compound words, written and treated like one word. Locative, Lative, and Comparative suffixes are used when building a “prepositional phrase” out of a noun.

Example: vlezhdatl = star + lord, a type of cruiser. /vlezhd/ “Star” is the modifier, /atl/ “Lord” is the main noun.

Adjectival suffixes (often eroded forms of standalone adjectives) are also suffixed to nouns.

Nouns from Verbs[edit]

Verbs can be turned into nouns with the –da or –ad suffix, or one of a number of specialized alternate suffixes:

 -da, -ad        concrete instance
 -di, -sa, -as   abstract, state of being, -ment or -ity 
 -iabr           generic thing
 -ienz           commercial thing
 -ine            military thing
 -nad            one who does, or thing that does

When a nominalizing suffix results in a word with a doubled consonant, the extra consonant is removed. Example: /rid/ sing + /-da/ nominalizer = /ridda/ => /rida/ song

Verbs are also nominalized when suffixed by another verb, both without their infiniEve endings. Example: /alekr.va/ to favor + to shine. “Shining favor”.

Noun Locative, Dative, and Comparative Suffixes[edit]

These suffixes are used when building “prepositional phrases” with a noun. They really are of the same essence as adjectival suffixes.

 -af     yonder, far from 
 -che'   above, better 
 -chedl  before, in front of 
 -chrnt  up to, as far as 
 -dliez  on
 -enz    by (opposite “from”)
 -flints like
 -ia     collectivizer / about, near, concerning 
 -iash   via, by way of
 -ir     with, along with
 -pratl  from (a place)
 -prebr  from (a person or thing) 
 -pri’   in spite of
 -qaf    from
 -qlets  except
 -shtivl because of, due to 
 -tia    at, for, against 
 -tiaql  without
 -tlieb  instead of
 -zaf    to, in

Examples: Vlezhdatl, a Zhodani cruiser. Vlezhdatlaf, far from a Zhodani cruiser. Vlezhdatlzaf, towards a Zhodani cruiser.

Noun Adjectival Suffixes[edit]

These suffixes modify the noun in a manner similar to adjectives. Many of them are eroded versions of adjectives. To generate a new adjectival suffix, take part of a syllable from an English adjective, and Zhodanify it. For example, take the English word “fast”, remove the final “st”, and run the “fa” through the process, resulting in “shte”.

 -atch   small; lowly 
 -davr   new
 -dro    bright
 -fraq   ?
 -fredr  ? 
 -kekl   stale
 -iensh  old 
 -klie   slow 
 -med    clean 
 -nie    ? 
 -qapl   fresh 
 -riem   ?
 -shte   fast
 -tlas   large; great 
 -zda    ?
 -zdo    dull
 -zdodl  dirty; unclean

Example: Vlezhdatltlas, the great Vlezhdatl-class cruiser.

Possession[edit]

The pronouns are used as suffixes on nouns to indicate simple possession.

 -ik           my, mine
 -dish / -ish  our, ours
 -u'd          your, yours
 -ens          his, her, theirs

Nouns may also have a special form marking them as possessed. ru-kej ri achin "the man's horse" (literally "his horse the man"). "the mountain's head" (literally "its head the mountain") to mean "on (top of) the mountain". u-wach ulew "on the earth" (literally "its face the earth"). In English, we use “of” for possession or position or description or reference in this way. Here, we see (1) the object owned, with possessive prefix, and then (2) the owning object.

There are no cases or genders. Descriptive/genitive case (controller of wills) uses the possessive construction “their will” + “controller”:

/an/ to will + /do/ nominalizer + /qr/ 3rd person possessive “their(s)”

/brezdej/ to control + /abl/ 3rd person subject "it-does"

= andoqr tejebl. /andoqr/ others’ wills + /brezdejabl/ it controls.

Genitive Prefix[edit]

af-

Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives modify nouns in the same manner as Spanish: the noun comes first, then adjectives follow. Verbs also can modify nouns in this way. These modifiers are directly suffixed to the word.

Example: vlezhdaf = star + yonder. “A star far away”.

Example: vlezhdatlishaf = vlezh + atl + ish + af = star + lord + us + yonder = our yonder Star-Lord-class cruiser.

Example: shivva = moon + to shine. “Moonlight” or “Shining moon”.

Example: nenjchinzhe’driante = nenj + chinzhe’ + driante = legion + “meritorious” + consular = Consular Legion of Merit.

Deriving Adjectives from Verbs[edit]

The suffix -te can be used on verbs, where appropriate, to “turn it into” an adjective.

Verbs[edit]

Verbs are conjugated for person and mood.

Examples:

 Kiatlik = /kiatl/ “attack” /ik/ “I” = I attack (something unspecified).

Person[edit]

 -ik       1p singular
 -(d)ish   1p plural
 -u'd      2p
 -ens      3p

Mood[edit]

 -atch     small; waning
 -tlas     great; waxing
 -(a)qle   interrogative

Commands[edit]

Normal commands use the Infinitive coupled with Person. Here is the difference between using a bare infinitive versus issuing a command:

Kiatle’ to attack kiatl + e' Kiatlu’de’ you, attack kiatl + u'd + e'

Abrupt commands, used under danger, stress, to disparage, or to assert one’s superiority, leave off the person and infinitive ending. Also used in context for showing contempt.

Kiatl! attack!

Aspect[edit]

Aspect is carried on a separate word following the verb:

 Daz	  Past	
 Chtenz  Potential/future
 Tsench  Habitual
 Toz	  Completive/punctual
 Pri’	  Optative (wish/hope)
 -Enzh	  Participle (is -ing)*	
 -Ej	  Perfective (has -ed)*

Participles and perfectives are attached onto the verb for the present tense. For other aspects, they are attached to the aspect instead. For example, DAZENZH “was doing”, CHTENZENZH “will be doing”.

Auxiliary Verbs[edit]

To Send. The verb “send” is used to set up a secondary verb. This is used where English would use the verb “to tell”.

Example: I sent him to attack. Bezhikatl kiatlense'. Example: I sent you to solve the problem. Bezhikatl chteshu'de'.

Adverbs[edit]

Adverbs come after the modified verb, with the exception of sentence negation.

Negation. Negated sentences are typically started with the word qlie.

  Qlie. Qlie kiatlik.  No. I do not attack.

Affirmation. The word “yes” per se does not exist in Zdetl. The normal method of answering in the affirmative is to repeat the basis of the question.

  Kiatlikaqle. Do I attack?
  Kiatlik. (Yes) I attack.

Time. Some adverbs are part of verb tenses, while others can appear independently of verb tense.

Verb tense modifiers:

  Dedl. 		Some time ago
  Dedl planzh. 	Long ago

Independent time adverbs:

Shta Right now Blefr Today Zeychim Soon

Adverbs are also built by tacking on the suffix -vra onto a verb infinitive.

   -Vra	Adverbial (+ly)

Auxiliary Phrases[edit]

These are phrases ending in locative, dative, or purposive cases. These phrases operate on or modify the immediately preceding phrase. When a verb is absent, these phrases may also operate as cupolas, i.e. they sort of act like the verb “to be”.

Example: Vlezhdatl vlezhdia. The Cruiser [is] near (about) the star.

Relative Clauses[edit]

Relative clauses are built using participle forms of a verb. Since they are sentence-like, they are built in OVS order. And since a relative clause is itself the object of a sentence, it appears before the main verb.

EXAMPLE:

 [English form] I hate the superior person who hates my stealth scout.
 [Using a participle] The superior person hating my stealth scout, I hate.
 [OVS] The my-scout hating superior person, I hate.
 [Zhodani form] Scout-my hate.PARTICIPLE superior person hate.I.
 [Translated] Steblinik ransenzh vlastebr ransik.

References & Contributors (Sources)[edit]

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