Sylean language

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This language is primarily used by the Sylean race throughout the Sylean Worlds sub-polity.

  • It is a central language.

Description (Specifications)[edit]

The language originating on Capital/Core, and spoken by many people in the Core sector.

Structure[edit]

No information yet available.

Morphology[edit]

Morphology is the study of the internal structure of words.

  • morpheme, inflection, paradigm, declension, derivation, compound, etc.

Phonology[edit]

Phonology, the study of the sound systems of a language.

  • phoneme, allophone, segment, mora, syllable, foot, stress, tone, etc.
  • All sounds are pronounced as Vilani or Solomani, with the exception of /X/, which is pronounced /sh/. The Syleans write /sh/ when writing words borrowed from the Vilani, and use /x/ when writing native Sylean words. For example, in the world name /Shana ma/, the word /shana/ is borrowed from the Vilani.

Grammar[edit]

Grammar is the structure of a language.

  • tense, aspect, mood and modality, grammatical number, grammatical gender, case, etc.
  • Sylea has been dominated by the Vilani for ages; it is no surprise that elements of Vilani grammar have been grafted into Sylean syntax. However, Sylean is rather less agglutinative than Vilani, and like many Terran languages, it is not ergative.


Syntax[edit]

Syntax is the study of how words combine to form grammatical sentences.

  • phrase, clause, grammatical function, grammatical voice, etc.
  • Verbs and Adverbs: Verb roots always end in a vowel + /h/, and implicitly represent the first or second person -- sort of like a general 'we' category (probably borrowed from Vilani grammar) which can mean I, you, some general person, or us. Suffixes alter the verb in various ways. The verb structure is:

verb: ROOT + (negation) + (third/fourth person) + (mood) + (modal enclitics)

or

adverb: ROOT + /ad/

Negation. /-du/ negates the meaning of the verb. This is a borrowing from the Vilani verbal prefix /du-/.

Third person. /-ne/ represents he, she, it, them.

Fourth person. /-ii/ represents a different he, she, it, them.

-to. Although we don't know what this suffix is for, we know it exists and comes before mood suffixes. Moreover, we know it turns the verb's 'h' into 'x'.

Mood:

/-ma/ desiderative "let's go!"

/-mo/ jussive "let them eat cake."

/-mi/ didactic/mirative "let me tell you/you're telling me that..."

/-ju/ counterfactual (from Vilani /Zu/)

/-me/ quotative "They say that..." (was: -em)

/-ix/ probable

/-lad/ improbable (from Vilani /Lad/)

/-zi/ conditional "supposing that..."

/-aam/ interrogative (from Vilani /Aam/)

Modal enclitics (borrowed from the Vilani) immediately follow the verb:

/Asi/ "must, have to" (also used for imperative)

/Esiim/ "ought to"

Adverbizer: /-ad/ (from the Vilani verbal suffix /-ad/).

Note that the vowel before the final /h/ is deleted where possible, and the /u/ from the negative suffix /du/ is also deleted.

  • Verb list:
   Verbs                              Adverbs
   
   Kah         be healthy             Khad       in a healthy manner
   Kahdu       be unhealthy           Khadad     in an unhealthy manner
               
   Iagah       think                  Iaghad     thoughtfully
   Iagahdu     not-think              Iaghdad    thoughtlessly
               
   Xah         include, bring in      Xahad      inclusively
   Xahdu       be bypassed, isolated  Xahdad     isolatively (?)
               
   Esih        require                Eshad      compulsively?
   Esihdu      forbid                 Eshdad     forbiddingly
               
   Siilah      be appealing           Siilhad    appealingly
   Siilahdu    be unappealing         Siilhadu   unappealingly
               
   Dimolih     adorn                  Dimolhid   tidily
   Dimolihdu   unadorn                Dimolhidu  untidily
   
   Selijih     eat
   Selijihdu   fast
   
   Pih         ? (< Pixtome, a world name)
   
  • Adjectives: Intransitive verbs are used as adjectives. This method is borrowed from the Vilani.
  • Examples:

Kah. "'We' are healthy."

Kahne. "She is healthy."

Kahne esiim. "She ought to be healthy."

Iagah khad. "'We' think healthily."

Iagahne khad. "They think healthily."

Iagahii khad. "They (different from the group above) think healthily."

Xahduma. "Let's become isolated."

Xahdunemo. "Let them become isolated."

  • Nouns:

Nouns can be related to verbs; many times, the noun form of a word ends in -n, -r, or -l, while the verb form ends in -h. The noun form also tends to have shortened initial vowels, while the verb form will often have diphthongs or lengthened initial vowels.

   Ar        ? (from Arati, family name)
   Bel       ? (from Beliiz, ?)
   Cel       ? (from Celia, Anglic name)
   Ciil      ? (from Ceelig, personal name)
   Daval     ? (from Davalli, personal name)
   Del       ? (from Deligo, family name)
   Der       ? (from Derizos and Derisovial, names)
   Dever     ? (from Devero, family name)
   Dimol     ? (from dimolin, adornment)
   Dimolin   adornment; clothes (from dimolih, adorn)
   Esen      ? (from Esenina, personal name)
   Esin      restriction; interdiction
   Gin       health (from Vilani, Sylean Gina)
   Igan      mind   (from Iagah, to think)
   Il        ? (from Illia, personal name)
   Kan       health or body
   Mar       ? (from Mariik, Vilani college name)
   Mul       ? (from Muliid, Vilani personal name)
   Muscir    ? (from Musciri, personal name)
   Niir      homeworld
   Pual      ? (personal name)
   Rhijl     ? (from Rhylea, Rhylan, Rhylanor)
   Sel       ? (from selijil, food, and selijih, eat)
   Selijil   food (from selijih, eat)
   Shana     copse, grove; hope; name (fem) < Vilani
   Shar      ? (from Shariha, personal name)
   Shel      ? (from Shela, Vilani personal name)
   Sher      ? (from Sheri, Vilani personal name)
   Shil      ? (from Shili, Vilani family name)
   Siil      ? (from siilah, be appealing)
   Sijl      ? (from Sylea)
   Ter       ? (from Teresa or Theresa, Anglic personal name)
   Vel       ? (from Velardi, family name)
   Wair      ? (from Wairi, personal name)
   Xan       singularity, isolate, bypass
   Zuar      ? (from Zuarkri, personal name)
  • Noun Suffixes:

These are suffixes which modify the noun. In many cases, they may be "stacked" one after the other. Suffixes may represent conjunctions, possession, number, and/or case markings.

Here are the "first group" suffixes we know of; when they occur, they are always first after the noun.

   -an  
   -ar  
   -at  
   -ih  (verbalizer)
   -ij  
   -in  
   -k
   -li  

And here are the "second group" suffixes we know of; when they occur, they are always the last suffix of the noun.

   -a   
   -di  
   -i   
   -iid
   -iik
   -iiz 
   -il  
   -or  
   -ri

Finally, here are the suffixes that we can't classify:

   -ah  (verbalizer)
   -ea
   -es
   -ha
   -ia
   -ial
   -ig
   -is 
   -iz
   -ler
   -o
   -os
   -ov
   
  • Conjunctions:

Conjunctions come between phrases, as in many Terran languages. Sylean has conjunctions to represent inclusion and exclusion.

Certain noun suffixes may perform conjunctive roles.

/he/ and, as in "just this and that"

/ii/ and, as in "this and that and et cetera"

/e/ and/or, as in "this and/or that" In colloquial Sylean, /e/ and /he/ are often used interchangeably.

/kii/ or, as in "either this or that but not both"

Examples:

Igan he kan, Mind and body.

Igan ii kan, Mind and body and other things.

Igan e kan, Mind and/or body.

Igan kii kan, Either mind or body (but not both).

Numbers[edit]

0 An     10 Nan    20 Ma nan     100 Kanna           300 Ka kanna
1 La     11 Lan    21 Ma lan     101 Kanna la        900 Ko kanna
2 Ma     12 Man    22 Ma man     102 Kanna ma       1000 Nan kanna
3 Ka     13 Kan      
4 Xi*    14 Lin    30 Ka nan     110 Kanna nan    10,000 Lakanaa
5 Mi     15 Min    40 Li nan     120 Kanna       100,000 Nan Lakanaa
6 Ki     16 Kin    50 Mi nan                          1m Makanaa
7 Lo     17 Lon    80 Mo nan     200 Ma kanna        10m Nan Makanaa
8 Ex*    18 Mon                  201 Ma kanna la    100m Kakanaa
9 Ko     19 Kon                                       1b Nan kakanaa
                                                     10b Likanaa
                                                      1t Mikanaa
                                                    100t Kikanaa
                                                     10q Lokanaa

  • Sylean words and phrases:
Xahdunemo      Imperial policy of surrounding unwilling pocket empires
Hipodile       Ceremonial games or ritual center
Iagah Khad     Sylean thought police
Igan Hipodile  The official Sylean Mind Games
Esih selijil he dimolin.  Proverb "all we need is food and clothing"
  • Lexicon:
   /s Aazra Kand
   /e world/place name
   
   /s Andraaka
   /e college name
   
   /s Beliiz Derisovial
   /e personal name (m)
   
   /s Caymal Mamuga
   /e personal name (m)
   
   /s Ceelig Donkou
   /e personal name (m)
   
   /s Celia
   /e personal name (f)
   
   /s Davalli
   /e personal moniker
   
   /s Derizos
   /e personal name (m)
   
   /s Esenina Zosiphon
   /e personal name (f)
   
   /s Gina Shili
   /e personal name (f)
   
   /s iagah
   /e thinking (gerund)
   
   /s Iagah khad
   /e Thought police
   
   /s Idmum
   /e world name
   
   /s igan
   /e think
   
   /s Igan hipodile
   /e "Mind games"
   
   /s Illia Xunow
   /e personal name (f)
   
   /s Imar
   /e system name
   
   /s Imdi Mi
   /e system name
   
   /s Josua Devero
   /e personal name (m)
   
   /s Kagii Laa
   /e city on Kand
   
   /s Kagii Shiir
   /e personal name (m)
   
   /s Khad
   /e police
   
   /s Mariik
   /e college name
   
   /s Meice, Bay of -
   /e place name
   
   /s Miiso Meuller
   /e personal name
   
   /s Mikkel Juans
   /e personal name (m)
   
   /s Misha Aan
   /e personal name
   
   /s Muliid Arati
   /e personal name (m)
   
   /s Musciri Deligo
   /e personal name (m)
   
   /s Niir
   /e Core 0106
   
   /s Nipe
   /e system name
   
   /s Nuunzaaind
   /e system name
   
   /s Pixtome
   /e world in Core sector (also a conjugated verb)
   
   /s Pual Wovii
   /e personal name (m)
   
   /s Secathet Worain
   /e personal name (m)
   
   /s Sesisos Gishvii
   /e personal name (f)
   
   /s Shariha Velardi
   /e personal name (f)
   
   /s Sheri Kashvi
   /e personal name (f)
   
   /s Shela
   /e personal name (f)
   
   /s Sylea
   /e Sylea
   
   /s Theresa Aykthul
   /e personal name (f)
   
   /s Uumin Duu
   /e system name
   
   /s Viiki Smith
   /e personal name (f)
   
   /s Viviia Sanch
   /e personal name (f)
   
   /s Wairi Aykthul
   /e personal name (m)
   
   /s Zimiin
   /e system name
   
   /s Zuarkri
   /e world name

Meaning[edit]

No information yet available.

Lexicology[edit]

A lexicon is the word supply of a language.

  • word, lexeme, lemma, lexicon, vocabulary, terminology, etc.
  • The Sylean vocabulary has many consonant-clusters in it, and they use more sounds than the Vilani. Many of their vowels are borrowed from (or modified to) archaic and modern Vilani. Likewise for their consonants, although there are many Sylean or Solomani consonants used which do not appear in Vilani.

a aa b d e g h i ii j k kh l m n o p r s sh(x) t u uu v z

Some modern spellings include y (Sylea, Rhylea) and w, but these letters are actually the Sylean diphthongs ij and uu.

Semantics[edit]

Semantics is the study of the meaning of words (lexical semantics), and how these combine to form the meanings of sentences.

  • meaning, sense, entailment, truth condition, compositionality, etc.

Pragmatics[edit]

Pragmatics is the study of how language is used by its speakers.

  • presupposition, implicature, deixis

History & Background (Historical Linguistics)[edit]

There are three major influences that formed into the Sylean spoken from the founding of the Third Imperium. First, the Syleans themselves have a unique vocabulary and, originally, their own grammar. Next, the Ziru Sirka had thousands of years to drill Vilani grammar into the Syleans. The fact that Sylean survived in any form at all is a testament to the stubbornness of people. Thirdly, the Rule of Man provided a sprinkling of Anglic to Sylea, usually in the form of names, but also affecting orthography. So then, Sylean is (1) a native lexicon, (2) a Vilani-influenced grammar, and (3) a mostly Solomani orthography.

Worlds & Sectors (Astrography)[edit]

This language is primarily in use in the following areas:

References & Contributors (Sources)[edit]

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