Rad (metric)

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A rad is a unit of measurement of radiation.

Description (Specifications)[edit]

A Rad is a unit of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation equal to an energy of 0.1 newtons per gram of irradiated material.

  • 1 rad is equal to 10 millisieverts
  • The common Imperial usage is simply rad: the name is short enough to make an abbreviation unnecessary.

The rad is related to the millisievert, a unit measuring the radiation dose defined as that producing the same biologic effect in a specified tissue as 1 gray of high-energy x-rays received either from a radioactive source or from other sources such as medical procedures.

  • A millisievert is generally a whole body effective dose, but it may also be an equivalent dose received by a particular tissue or organ.
  • The common Imperial abbreviation is mSv.

A Radiation Counter is able to measure the local ambient radiation levels.

Harmful radiation is most commonly caused by x-rays, beta particles and gamma rays.

Generalized Rad Level Table[edit]

Rad Levels
Exposure Effect Typical Source
0.001 rads / hour No negative long term effects. Dental x-ray
0.01 rads / hour No negative long term effects. Chest x-ray
10 rads / hour Radiation sickness, nausea, eventual recovery likely. Airborne fallout as a result of a detonated thunderball device.
25 rads / hour Lowest dose to cause clinically observable blood changes. Can be caused by solar flares on planets with less protective atmospheres.
200 rads / hour Local dose for onset of erythema (reddened skin) in humans.
400 rads / hour Acute radiation syndrome in humans.
1000 rads / hour Organ failure, death within hours.
Typical radiation tolerance of ordinary microchips.
Within the crater of a detonated thunderball device.
6 krads / hour Typical radiotherapy dose, locally applied.
10 krads / hour Rapid fatal whole-body dose, death within an hour.
400 krads / hour Rapid organ failure, death within minutes. Within the magnetosphere of a large gas giant.
1 mrads / hour Typical tolerance of radiation-hardened microchips

Term Usage Example[edit]

A Fission power plant may produce hundreds of rads per hour.

History & Background (Dossier)[edit]

Effects on health are observed only beyond 10 rads (100 mSv), though long term exposure to substantially lower levels of radiation still presents a severe risk to health. It takes a dose of hundreds of rads to cause injuries that can be fatal in the short term.

The rad was first defined as a unit of measurement on Terra prior to the foundation of the Terran Confederation. Technologists found the rad useful as the concept of the Technology Level and standardized ideas about sophont society development began to take form.[1]

Image Repository[edit]

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References & Contributors (Sources)[edit]

This article was copied or excerpted from the following copyrighted sources and used under license from Far Future Enterprises or by permission of the author.

  1. An unpublished factoid written by Maksim-Smelchak