Goods/Breathing apparatus

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Artificial Gill

Artificial Gill
Also see
Cost Cr4,000
Size 6.0 liters
Type Breathing apparatus
Tech Level TL–8
Weight 4.0 kg
Manufacturer Various
Powered Artificial Gill
Also see
Cost Cr5,000
Size 4.0 liters
Type Breathing apparatus
Tech Level TL–12
Weight 3.0 kg
Manufacturer Various
Powered Artificial Gill
Also see
Cost Cr7,500
Size 1.4 liters
Type Breathing apparatus
Tech Level TL–13
Weight 0.5 kg
Manufacturer Various
Artificial Gills were designed to extract oxygen from water and are complex devices, which allow a virtually unlimited amount of time underwater.
  • Some models have CO2 absorbent chemicals to eliminate bubbles for covert dives.

Description (Specifications)[edit]

A tank included in the mechanism carries a charge of nitrogen or helium, which is mixed with extracted oxygen. Exhaled carbon dioxide is eliminated, with the helium or nitrogen being recirculated. A pulse sensor in the mask adjusts oxygen extraction to match the exertion of the user.

In order to make sure the gill provides enough oxygen even if the wearer is not moving, additional water must be forced over the gas exchanger. The basic version of the gill uses the wearer's muscle power to pump the water and operate the gas exchange. But in addition to swimming this can be tiring, restricting the gill's use to a few hours. The enhanced version includes a battery pack usable for up to 12 hours. The battery drives water over the gill and run the gas exchange.

The artificial gill functions only in thin, standard, and dense atmospheres. Since the gill also extracts other dissolved gases from the water, it may be dangerous to use the gill on worlds with tainted atmospheres.

Variant[edit]

A variant of the artificial gill, the Powered Gill is similar in function but quite different in actual design. Using a power pack to provide the high levels of energy required, the powered gill converts water to hydrogen and oxygen; it expels the hydrogen and combining the oxygen with a carried nitrogen supply. The powered gill has all of the same basic limitations as the artificial gill, but it is lighter. Power supply is good for 36 hours of use between recharges. Bubbles (from hydrogen, broken down by the unit) cannot be masked.

History & Background (Dossier)[edit]

The two chief dangers involved in using the artificial gill are anoxia and hypoxia.

  1. Anoxia occurs in some layers of water where oxygen content is too low to allow extraction. This is normally a rare occurrence but should be watched for. Victims of anoxia must be given air within five minutes, or they will probably die.
  2. Hypoxia occurs when a fault in the mechanism delivers an insufficient volume of the mixed gas (nitrogen or helium) to the diver. Shots of pure oxygen have an intoxicating effect and should be treated much like nitrogen narcosis. Hypoxia is based on the reliability of the gill.

At TL–13, a miniaturized refinement of the standard powered gill employs the same principles but is much smaller. It consists of a lightweight, mouthpiece-type breathing device with a small battery and a container of pressurized nitrogen attached to the unit. The unit will not accept helium, and thus it is limited by the threat of nitrogen narcosis to pressures of 3 atmospheres or less. Total operating time is no more than 1 hour.

References & Contributors (Sources)[edit]

This article was copied or excerpted from the following copyrighted sources and used under license from Far Future Enterprises or by permission of the author.

 

Breather

Breather
Also see
Cost Cr35
Size 0.5l
Type Breathing apparatus
Tech Level TL–10
Weight 0.5kg

A Breather is a compact breathing assistance device consisting of a mouth piece and a compact compressed oxygen supply. A more advanced version of the Pocket Scuba. The oxygen supply lasts for 20 minutes. The breather is disposable, not designed to be refilled.

 

Oxygen Tank

Oxygen tank
Also see
Cost Cr500
Size 115l
Type Breathing apparatus
Tech Level TL–5
Weight 2.5kg

The standard Oxygen Tank is filled with a two hour supply of oxygen. The tank is 50 cm long and 20 cm in diameter, with a 2 cm long valve stem on one end. Refilling a tank with oxygen costs Cr10. The valve stem connects to the portable life support system or a SCUBA system.

This article was copied or excerpted from the following copyrighted sources and used under license from Far Future Enterprises or by permission of the author.

 

Pocket Scuba

Pocket SCUBA
Also see
Cost Cr100
Size 0.5l
Type Breathing apparatus
Tech Level TL–8
Weight 0.5kg

The Pocket Scuba is a SCUBA system designed to provide underwater life support for emergencies. It is a combination of a small air tank with regulator and mouthpiece in a slim package which is strapped to the arm or thigh. It provides 5 minutes worth of resting air support.

This article was copied or excerpted from the following copyrighted sources and used under license from Far Future Enterprises or by permission of the author.

 

Portable Life Support System

All Portable Life Support Systems (PLSS) backpacks are equipped with a frame holding two oxygen tanks, a gas regulator to control gas flow, and a 500 km range space-band radio, in addition to the other equipment.[1] They supply basic life support systems to the users of vacc suits and hostile environment suits.

All but the Type A system are equipped with a gas recycler that is capable of stretching the useful duration of oxygen tanks to as much as 8 hours per tank, depending on the user's exertions and the pressurization level of the suit. Each system is equipped with a chest control box that contains the pack's status displays (or telltales) and controls. Packs used with soft suits have straps to hold the pack onto the suit and a one meter umbilical that plugs into the suit. Packs used with hard torso or hard suits plug directly into the back of the suit; there are no straps or umbilicals used. All of the standard vacc suits and hostile environment suits work with any of the PLSS types.[1]

Each pack is equipped with a special mount to enable the wearer to replace his own oxygen tanks without removing the backpack, and provision is made for extra tanks to be strapped onto the pack. Changing a tank takes 2 minutes per tank. Waste is collected into disposable plastic sacs. [1]

An optional urine reprocessor unit can be installed to extract water from body wastes. The wearer may drink the recovered water by means of a nipple installed inside the helmet. This recycler costs Cr50, masses 1 kg, and is available at TL–7. [1]

PLSS Type A
Also see
Cost Cr3000
Size 94l
Type Breathing apparatus
Tech Level TL–6
Weight 2kg

This system was designed for short duration use. It is nothing more than two oxygen tanks connected through a regulator into the suit. Exhaust gas is vented directly into the exterior, no attempt is made to recycle it. This pack measures 70cm tall by 45 cm wide by 30 cm thick.[1]

PLSS Type B
Also see
Cost Cr5000
Size 100l
Type Breathing apparatus
Tech Level TL–7
Weight 7kg

This system was designed for general use of up to 20 hours duration. This pack measures 75 cm tall by 45 cm wide by 30 cm thick.[1]

PLSS Type C
Also see
Cost Cr8000
Size 115l
Type Breathing apparatus
Tech Level TL–9
Weight 14kg

This system was designed as a general use system of up to 40 hours duration. This pack measures 85 cm tall by 45 cm wide by 30 cm thick.[1]

This article was copied or excerpted from the following copyrighted sources and used under license from Far Future Enterprises or by permission of the author.

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named JTAS9-51
 

Respirator

Respirator
Also see
Cost Cr100
Size 2l
Type Breathing apparatus
Tech Level TL–6
Weight 1 kg

A Respirator is a small compressor and face mask which allows an individual to breathe in thin or very thin atmospheres. It is powered by a belt mounted battery pack good for 10 hours, and a small hand cranked generator to recharge the battery.

Variants include a simple canister of pure oxygen which is trickled into a mask to supplant local oxygen content. These are slightly lighter (.7kg) and much quieter, but cannot be recharged as the compressor type can. They require replacement cylinders per 10 hours of use at a mass of .4kg and cost of 50Cr. This latter type is used where mass is an important consideration, and long-term use of the system is not needed.

This article was copied or excerpted from the following copyrighted sources and used under license from Far Future Enterprises or by permission of the author.

 

Respirovest

Respirovest
Also see
Cost TBD
Size 4.5 liters
Type Breathing apparatus
Tech Level TL–13
Weight 3.0 kg
Manufacturer Various

A Respirovest is a type of high collared straight jacket wound with multiple wire coils. When the respirovest coils are properly energized they create a magnetic motor-field tuned to the magnetic moment of oxygen. The molecules are impelled into the nostrils and/or mouth and pushed down into the lungs. Carbon dioxide molecules (inversely magnetic) are pushed the other way.

The vest maintains breathing functions even for a badly injured person. The technology has been explored by fireman and rescue workers as a replacement or supplement for gas masks.

This article was copied or excerpted from the following copyrighted sources and used under license from Far Future Enterprises or by permission of the author.

 

Snorkel

Snorkel
Also see
Cost Cr5
Size 0.5 liters
Type Breathing apparatus
Tech Level TL–5
Weight 0.1 kg

A snorkel is a small tube which permits the diver to submerge completely but continue to breathe as long as the end of the snorkel is above water. There are many sizes of snorkels, but since these are all under 40 cm tall, once a snorkel gets past that length,the air exchange is not sufficient to support the diver.

This article was copied or excerpted from the following copyrighted sources and used under license from Far Future Enterprises or by permission of the author.

 
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